Environmental pollution and its effects: part 1
The topics are based upon the people and environments Syllabus of UGC NET PAPER 1:
- Air pollution.
- Water pollution.
- Measures employed by the government to control pollution.
- Rest of the pollution.
These are not descriptive notes; these are important and key points that are to be compiled by the UGC NET paper 1 exam syllabus.
Here are a few things that you need to know about environmental pollution and its effects on how it is affecting us in light of the questions asked in the UGC NET exam.
Pollutants are generally grouped under two sections;
- Biodegradable pollutants.
Examples of these pollutants include domestic waste products, Fawcett matter, urine, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc.
- Non-biodegradable pollutants.
These pollutants contained a very strong chemical bond, and therefore do not break down into simple and harmless products. They include various insecticides, pesticides, Mercury, lead, aluminum, arsenic, radioactive waste etc.
Classification of environmental pollution
Pollution can be classified according to the different components of the environment that are polluted.
Air pollution- It may be defined as the presence of contaminants like smoke, color, dust, mist within the atmosphere that may be harmful and injurious to the human beings, plants as well as animals.
- It is the most prominent form of pollution and the most dangerous as well.
- It basically contains a mixture of gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen.
- Carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, arsenic, asbestos, dust and radioactive matter may also be present.
- The release of sulphur dioxide along with hazardous gases can cause of global warming and acid rain.
- Carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas happens to be the main pollutant.
- Various other greenhouse gases which includes methane which come from various sources like swamps and livestock as well as chlorofluorocarbons which are to be found in refrigerators and air assault propellants, before there were actually banned due to the depletion of the ozone layer.
- The major threat comes from the burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum products and coal.
- Infested with the water ranging from plastic next to chemical waste, water bodies can turn into a poisonous pool of water. Examples include;
- Raw sewage which runs into streams and lakes.
- Industrial waste spill which contaminates groundwater.
- Nuclear accidents and radiation spills.
- Illegal dumping of the substances within bodies of water.
- Biological contamination like bacterial growth.
- Run-off from the farm.
- Pollution within the water occurs when there are substances which will be able to modify the water in a negative fashion and it is discharged within it. The discharge can be direct as well as indirect.
- Water pollutants also include herbicides and insecticides, processing waste for food, pollutant from the livestock, volatile organic compounds, chemical waste, heavy metals along with other things.
- The industries can produce a huge amount of waste which can contain toxic chemicals and pollutants most of which include lead, mercury, asbestos, nitrates, sulphur along with a lot of other harmful chemicals. Many of these industries to not have a proper waste disposal system, and hence the end of draining the waste in the freshwater which contaminates rivers, canals as well as the sea.
- The garbage produced in each and every household contains different kinds of products such as rubber, plastic, food, which is deposited in the sea in various countries. They can take about 200 years to decompose.
- Most of the toxic chemicals have total capability of changing the color of the water, as well as increasing the amount of minerals within the water which is also known as eutrophication, changing the temperature of the water, and thereby posing a serious hazard to the already present water organisms.
- The Sewage within the water can end up creating harmful bacteria and chemicals that end up causing serious problems. The pathogen is an also known as a very common pollutant of the water.
Steps taken by the Indian government in order to reduce pollution
The Central pollution control board or CPCB has taken a lot of positive steps in order to minimize pollution within the environment.
Important Environment laws:
- Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974
- The water (prevention and control of pollution) act was passed in 1974 in order to prevent and control the pollution of water, as much as maintaining and restoring the wholesomeness of drinkable water within the country. It was amended in 1988.
- Air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981
- The Air (prevention and control of pollution) act was passed in 1981 and it was amended in the year 1987 in order to prevent, control as well as abate the air pollution within the country.
- Cess act, 1977.
- Environment (protection) act 1986.
- Public liability insurance act, 1981.
- National environmental Tribune act, 1995.
- National environmental applet authority act, 1997.
- Compensatory afforestation fund management and planning authority.
- The biological diversity act 2002 was founded due to the attempt of India to realize the objective is on the United Nations Convention on biological diversity, 1992 which was recognized the sovereign rights of the states in order to make use of their own biological resources.
- The National Green Tribunal which was established in 18 – 10 – 2010 under the National Green Tribunal act, 2010 for expeditious and effective removal and disposal of cases under the environmental protection and conservation of forests acts. Other natural resources which included enforcement of any legal right relating to the environment and giving proper compensation and ready for the damages to the people and property and all the matter connected or any incident thereto. It is also known as a specialized body which is equipped with the necessary expertise in order to handle any kind of environmental dispute that can cut out of multiple disciplinary issues.
Pollution does not only affect the comments by destroying the cardiovascular, respiratory and the neurological systems, it also affects all the other living things like plants, vegetables, fruits, ponds, rivers, animals, forest, and a whole lot of other things dependent upon them for survival. It is very important and crucial to control the pollution, as nature is the best gift for mankind.